Diet Management
  Carbohydrate Counting:The Basics
Counting carbohydrates in the foods you eat can help you control your blood glucose. This is because carbohydrates raise your blood glucose more than any other nutrient.Foods can be divided into three nutrient groups: carbohydrates, meats and meat substitutes, and fats. Carbohydrates such as grains, fruits, vegetablpppppes, and low-fat milk are healthy foods. They provide energy, vitamins, minerals, and fiber.The balance between the amounts of carbohydrates you eat and insulin determines how much your blood glucose level goes up after meals. This means you need to know what foods have carbohydrates and how many carbohydrate servings to eat to keep your blood glucose within the target range.
How to Count Carbohydrates
Grams of carbohydrate Count as
0-5 g Do not count
6-10g 1/2 carbohydrate servings or 1/2 starch, fruit, or milk serving
11-10g 1carbohydrate serving or 1 starch, fruit, or milk serving
21-25g 1 1/2 carbohydrate serving or 1 1/2 starch, fruit, or milk serving
26-35g 2 carbohydrate servings or 2 starch, fruit, or milk serving
Balanced Diets of Moderately Active Adults Indians
(For illustration purpose only)
Food Recommended amounts (g per day)
  Adult Man Adult Woman
Cereals (rice/wheat) 520 440
Pulses 50 45
Meat/Fish 30 30
Egg 1 1
Milk 200 150
Oil/fats 45 25
Sugar/molasses 35 20
Roots and tubers (potato, etc.) 60 50
Green leafy vegetables (spinach, etc.) 40 100
Other vegetables (cauliflower, etc.) 70 40
Type of Food and Number of servings
(For illustration purpose only)
Food Group Number of Servings Each Day Example of One Serving

Breakfast cereals, rice, pasta, bread, and noodles. Emphasize on whole grains.1 ounce equivalent equals: 1 slice of bread or small muffin, 1 cup of dry cereal and ½ cup cooked cereal, rice, pasta

6-8 ounce equivalents (the lower number is the serving for a 2000 calorie diet, the higher number for 2400 calorie diet>
Vegetables Tomatoes, potatoes, carrots, green peas, squash, broccoli, spinach, green beans, sweet potatoes.
1 cup raw leafy vegetables = ½ cup
2.5 - 3.5 cups
Fruits Apricots, bananas, dates, grapes, grapefruit, oranges, orange juice, mangoes, melons, peaches, pineapples, plums, berries 1.5 - 2 cups
Dairy Milk, yogurt, and cheese The following count as 1 cup: 1½ ounces of natural cheese and 2 ounces of processed cheese 3 cups
Meat, eggs, nuts, and beans Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dry beans, and nuts.1 ounce equivalent equals: 1 ounce of cooked lean meat, poultry, or fish, 1 egg, ½ oz. of nuts or seeds, 1 tbsp peanut butter, ¼ cup cooked dried beans or tofu 5.5 - 6.5 ounce equivalents
Oils Soft margarine, low-fat mayonnaise, light salad dressing, vegetable oil (olive, canola, safflower, corn) 27 - 31 grams
Discretionary Calorie Allowance After selecting nutrient dense foods from the above list, there is still room for a few more calories. Fat and added sugar are always counted as discretionary calories 267 - 362 calories
Some of the common foods and their composition:
(For illustration purpose only)
Food Carbohydrate Fat Protein
Bread (Roti) 52% 3% 9%
Rice (cooked) 23% 0.1% 2.2%
Banana 20% 20% 0.5% 1,0%
Potato 19% 0.1% 2%
Peas 16.7% 0.5% 5.2%
Apples 12.8% 0.5% 0.3%
Cabbage 5.5% 0.3% 1.2%
Spinach 3.2% 0.3% 1.6%
Eggs 0.7% 12% 13%
Milk 4% 4% 4%
Butter 0.4% 81% 0.6%
Cheese 2% 32% 25%
Meat 0 30% 22%
Chicken 0 11% 20%
Fish 0 0.4% 17%
Energy Requirement
(For illustration purpose only)
Age Energy required
5 years 6000 kJ per day
11 years 9000 kJ per day
18 years 11000 kJ per day
Adult (normal work) 9600 kJ per day
Adult (heavy work) 12000 kJ per day
Adult (very heavy work) 16000 kJ per day
Indian Diet Chart
(For illustration purpose only)
Food Group Quantity Sources
Cereals 300 g Wheat, Rice, Millets
Pulses 60g (Veg), 30g(Non-Veg) Sprouts/ Fermented
Meat 30 g Egg / Chicken / Fish
Vegetables 300 g (minimum) Peas, Carrot, Pumpkin, Beans, Green Leaf Vegetables etc.
Fruits 100 g (minimum) Orange, Apple, Papaya, Guava, Mango etc
Milk & Milk products 300 g Cheese, Curd etc
Sugar 20 g Confectionary
Fats 20 g Oil/ Butter/ Ghee
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